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This template provides a custom, simplified citation scheme for patents. Requires {{Reflist}} for citations to work.

Supported patents

Code Issuing body
us United States Patent and Trademark Office
ep European Patent Office
gb United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office


To invoke this template, enter <ref>{{patent |last= |first= |last2= |first2= |etal= |assignee= |title= |code= |number= |application= |date= }}</ref> after your claim. Consult our style guide for more information on how to use it.

Template parameters
Parameter Description Type Status
last The inventor's last name. string required
first The inventor's first name. If there is one, middle name also goes here. string required
last2 The second inventor's last name. Use only if the authors are two in total. string optional
first2 The second inventor's first name. If there is one, middle name also goes here. Use only if the authors are two in total. string optional
etal States that there are more than two inventors. Do not use last2 and first2 together with it. Only the first inventor needs to be cited, e.g. "Doe John et al." (not "Doe John, Doe Jane & et al."). Enter "true" to enable. boolean optional
assignee The assignee's name, i.e. the organization or individual(s) holding legal title to the patent. If it's an individual, write the last name before the first name. If there is more than an individual, only mention the first one and add "et al." string required
title The patent's title. string required
code The two-letter code of the issuing country or organization. Use the currently supported patent codes. Links to LibreJS-compliant patent websites are generated based on the input. boolean required
number The patent's number identifier without the two-letter code prefix, without the kind code.[note 1] This should always refer to the latest publication regarding the patent, whether it is published or not. For unpublished patents, also cite application number identifiers with application. string required
application The patent application's number identifier without the two-letter code prefix. Use only if the patent is unpublished for any reason. string optional
date The patent's date of publication (not date of application). If you are citing an application with application, then this should be the patent's date of application (not date of publication of documents such as A1). Use the YYYY-MM-DD format, e.g. "2022-03-15". Do not use other date formats. string required
<ref>{{patent |last=Gladding |first=Derek E. |etal=true |assignee=Microsoft Technology Licensing LLC |title= Features of range asymmetric number system encoding and decoding |code=us |number=11,234,023 |date=2022-01-25}}</ref>
<ref>{{patent |last=Kuriacose |first=Joseph |etal=true |assignee=OpenTV Inc. |title=A distributed computer system |code=ep |number=1307024 |date=2003-05-02}}</ref>
<ref>{{patent |last=Converse |first=Alexander Jay |assignee=Google LLC |title=Mixed boolean-token ans coefficient coding |code=us |number=20170164007 |application=15/370840 |date=2016-12-06}}</ref>


  1. The ESP Wiki primarily wants to distinguish between published patents and unpublished patents (the latter cited as patent applications).


  1. Gladding Derek E. et al., Microsoft Technology Licensing LLC, Features of range asymmetric number system encoding and decoding[USPTO][Espacenet][Google][PAT2PDF], U.S. Patent No. 11,234,023, issued on 2022-01-25.
  2. Kuriacose Joseph et al., OpenTV Inc., A distributed computer system[Espacenet][Google], EP1307024, issued on 2003-05-02.
  3. Converse Alexander Jay, Google LLC, Mixed boolean-token ans coefficient coding[USPTO][Google][PAT2PDF], Application US15/370,840, filed on 2016-12-06.